Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that causes TB nearly affects more than 20lakh people every year. India accounts for more than 3lakh of death cases caused due to TB and ranks at fifth position on a global scale in TB incidents.
Majorly disease affects the lungs of the human body, but if it’s not treated it can spread to different parts of the body through the blood and can lead to secondary infections affecting kidney, pelvic, fallopian tubes, uterus, and brain.
Well, it’s a matter of great concern because, when bacterium reaches genital tract it causes genital TB or pelvic TB, which leads to the phenomenon of infertility in both the sexes.
According to Gynaecologist and IVF Expert, Indira IVF Hospital, New Delhi, Dr. Nitasha Gupta, “In women the TB leads to thinning of endometrium due to the infection in uterus, thus resulting as a barrier to proper development of foetus.’ Whereas in males it causes epididymo-orchitis, blocking the passage, as a result of which the man becomes azoospermic, where sperm is not able to enter the semen. The symptoms don’t appear easily and by the time it’s realized it already leaves an impact on the fertility of humans.”
Two in every ten women suffering from TB cannot bear a child and genital tuberculosis accounts for approximately 40% to 80% incidents in women.
Mostly if the immune system is low and one is contact with an infected person, then TB is likely to hit your life.
When an infected person sneezes or coughs then bacteria of TB travel through air and enters into our lungs while breathing. Even sexual intercourse with an infected person is one of the means of getting genital tuberculosis.
As being a silent intruder it’s very difficult to notice the traits of TB hampering the fertility in females there some symptoms like the irregular menstrual cycle, vaginal discharge that is stained with blood, pain after intercourse could be noticed, but in many cases as bacteria remains latent these symptoms are showcased at a later stage.
For males symptoms like unable to ejaculate into a vagina, low sperm motility and pituitary gland not able to produce sufficient hormones can be seen.
This silent invader leading to infertility results from the inflammation and scarring that follow the infection, resulting in distortion of the normal anatomy and causing obstruction.
According to Dr. Nitasha Gupta, even though it’s difficult to diagnose the presence of TB in genital tract, there are certain ways to detect them like a sample of tissue taken from a women suffering from TB of fallopian tubes, endometrial tissue is collected from the uterus and sent to lab, where the bacteria are grown and later used for testing. The most trustworthy method of diagnosis is making a histological diagnosis of tubercles, which helps doctors on laparoscopy to confirm whether these suspicious lesions are due to tuberculosis or not. Polymerase chain reaction is also one of the methods to diagnose. Unfortunately, it’s expensive and not reliable.
Generally, females worry; that after getting TB will they be able to conceive or not but a proper TB medication can help them to go on and have a successful pregnancy.
Once a baby is born mothers are concerned about the baby getting contracted to the bacterium from breast milk, well it can only affect from the bacteria in the breath. So the mother should breastfeed after putting a mask on the face.